Is the Exodus a Myth?

Is the Exodus a Myth?

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Is the Exodus a myth?

Millions of people believe that the Exodus we know of from Hebrew school or Sunday school and movies really happened in history. They say God led his chosen people, Israel, out of slavery in Egypt with astounding miraculous power to Canaan, where the Israelite swords reclaimed the land God promised them. Of course, many of us no longer believe in miracles or God, or at least not a god that picks favorites among the children of Earth. Stories like this sound like the fantasy world of Greek mythology. So is the Exodus a myth too? If it is, what were the real origins of the Israelite nation and Judaism? Does the Exodus have any grounding in reality at all? What does this mean for biblical religions today?

To answer these questions we first have to isolate what exactly we are talking about. What is our source for the Exodus story? Cecil B. DeMille and Ridley Scott didn’t invent it. The Exodus story comes to us from the sacred writings that make up the Old Testament, in particular the books of Exodus through Deuteronomy. The individual books that make up the Old Testament reached their final form sometime after the return of Jews from Babylon and before the Roman occupation of the land of Israel. Our earliest complete copies are found in the Dead Sea Scrolls dated to around the first centuries BC /AD. The particular books that make up the Old Testament weren’t agreed upon on until several generations after beginning of Christianity!

Outside of those dedicated to defending religious dogmas, the spectacular Exodus story found in the Bible is considered by archeologists and historians to be impossible. A lot of them have suggested that there is a kernel of truth to the Exodus, but what that kernel might be is a matter of considerable debate. While most believe that there may be some historical reality behind the legend, many maintain it is only a myth and even the believers concede that we can’t know what happened, and the question no longer grabs the attention it once did with scholars.

 

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From the film, The Ten Commandments

 

I am of the opinion that there is a likely historical event in behind the Exodus. I’m documenting my own theory for the date of the Exodus, and what that event was, in my current research. By way as an introduction, I want to explain some of the background to my research.

First, one of the most important keys to understanding the historical record of the Exodus is the understanding that the story is composed of various separate sources. Each tells its own story, and the composite story is ahistorical because it only comes into being with the combination of the sources. Those sources were written at different times and places by people with a diversity of views.

While Christians order the Bible from Genesis to the Minor Prophets and Jews from Genesis to the Writings, the actual chronology of the times when the books and their sources were written is different. The earliest parts of the Bible’s stories that were composed are a number of poems dated by most scholars to around the 12th-11th centuries.

The bible itself cites two works, the wars of Jehovah and the Book of the Righteous, which are now lost to us in their entirety, but seemed to have contained ancient songs celebrating God and Israel.

The next sources are called by scholars J and E, and they make up large chunks of the books from Exodus to Numbers. The dates of these two are hard to determine, but I think J can be confidently dated to between approximately 850-800 B.C. E is harder to date and may be later or earlier. It was probably combined with J shortly after the fall of Israel.

Following them is likely some of the Minor Prophets, Amos, Hosea, and Isaiah. These books are supposedly records of the lives and prophecies of prophets, written down by disciples either during their lives or shortly afterward. The books, as we have them, were sometimes composed decades later and contain a lot of later material attributed to the old prophets, but there is a certain amount of material believed to date back to the prophets themselves, who were active between approximately 800 and 700 B.C.

The other sources, D and P, are later still. D was certainly written during the reign of Josiah, while P may be from anywhere between the time of king Hezekiah of Judah to the period under the Persians after the Jews were freed from Babylon. D is the book of Deuteronomy while P makes up most of the Bible from Genesis to Numbers that isn’t J or E.

Other biblical books were written even later, but I won’t dwell on these since they are composed too late to have a real historical perspective or are derived from the combinations of these earlier sources.

When you separate the various strands of sources, arrange them in time and read them separately you find the story changes, things that we associate with the Exodus are not found in all versions, nor are some elements and themes found in the earliest sources. Perspectives on the Exodus change as writers are influenced by more independent sources and combined text. Its story is shaped by the circumstances of the history when it was written. By examining the separate elements of the Exodus story in regard to its age, biases, reliability and so forth, we can trace the story of the Exodus back through time to its original form and then use that for comparison to the historical and archeological data to answer the question: what was the Exodus? In future posts, I will discuss how the different sources talked about the Exodus at different times.

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Bibliography: If you want to look up the books where I get my information from, here you go…

The Harper Collins Study Bible NRSV 2006

Who Wrote the Bible? 1987

The Bible Unearthed 2001

The Oxford History of the Biblical World 1998

The Old Testament: A historical and Literary Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures 2006

Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry 1975

Click here for a brief summation of the theory that the fist five books of the Bible are a combination of different sources, called the Documentary hypothesis.

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The Apocalypse of Prince

The Apocalypse of Prince

With Prince passing away, I decided to listen to his albums before work and his song Seven came up. I’ve linked to the Video. I thought it was interesting in that Prince, raised a Jehovah Witness would have been familiar with the apocalyptic literature of the Bible and Seven is potpourri of apocalyptic ideas and phrases in a love song. I wonder how the way Prince uses apocalyptic language compares with the ancient writers of apocalyptic literature. Sure theirs were political statements, not love songs, but it is all poetry.

How should civilization respond to “Primitive” Societies?

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I read an article concerning the problem how we ought to respond to so called endangered cultures. These are societies that have not yet integrated to global human civilization. The practice now is to leave them be and prohibit interaction. Unfortunately these people are often in conflict with farmers, loggers, and others that encroach on their territory. The article argues that pressure on their environment is slowly shrinking their territories below that needed for long-term survival. An argument presented I. The article is that exchange between people is natural and regulated interaction may be better for preserving these cultures that complete abstention.

Comments on the article frequently expressed the opinion that enforced isolation was tantamount to keeping humans in a zoo. I have to counter though that before the current program, contact with isolated peoples were almost always a disaster. Contact spread disease to natives who never needed immunities. Culture clash, disruption of the economy, and inability to comprehend the goals and values of civilized societies led to war and dependence.

As a student of ancient and primitive societies and their religions, these isolated people are a valuable source of pure primitive mythology and ritual. I hope that these might be preserved long enough to at least be properly documeted. On the other hand I have to rember that these are people like me that want to survive, prosper  and evolve and not just serve as a specimen or artifact. 

 

 

 

 

Pilgrimage to The Great Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound

I had the opportunity this past weekend to visit the world heritage site: The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio. Given how famous the mound is within my readings, I’m surprised that I haven’t gone sooner. Along the way, I stopped at a couple of locations from my Mysterious Ohio wall map, which included a visit with a fascinating curator of fossils and stones.

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Serpent Mound is the worlds largest snake effigy and is at least 1000 years old—perhaps even older. It was surrounded by burial mounds, though the snake structure itself contains/contained no artifacts. It is a mound of turf about three feet tall and over 100 feet long. Its full shape can only be appreciated from the air.

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At ground level, the coils of the serpent rise at both ends following the contours of the land. From the middle the serpent appears to be a series of terraces on the left and right. Its tail is a tight spiral that can be appreciated from ground level while the head forms an oval depression.

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The Head or Egg

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The Coil Tail

It is thought that burnt offerings were offered in the middle of the head. The serpent’s head points to the setting point of the Sun on the summer solstice. A line between the tip of the tail and head points directly north and the coils line up with several other solar and lunar events during the year. The tip of the tail provides a good platform for viewing the various equinox and solstice events, especial the winter solstice. The head is located on a promontory and the rest of the serpent follows a cliff along the path of a couple of intersecting creeks.

The head, which many interpret to be a snake swallowing an egg, may symbolize a world serpent swallowing the dying sun (the common mythological interpretation of the shortening of days after the summer solstice). While the tail might have been imagined to be the place it was reborn during winter solstice. Like the sun, the spirits of the dead may have been imagined to be swallowed and born again.

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Two trees suggest a gateway along the modern path around the Serpent.

Travelers to Serpent Mound might also be interested in visiting a rather old cemetery, Locust Grove Cemetery, located along the road to the site. Another stop along the way is the historic Wickham Inn, which looks to be a private residence, and is rumored to be haunted.

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The “Haunted” Wickham Inn

My trip ended at a very interesting shop. Before the turn-off road that leads to the Serpent Mound site, there is a fossil and mineral shop called House of Phacops.

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A phacop is a trilobite, an arthropod that has been extinct for hundreds of millions of years.

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The shop has a great collection of trilobits and offers fossils and minerals for sale—many are local. The shop appears to be a destination for New Agers as well, and some space within is dedicated to mystical speculation on the Serpent Mound, alongside news articles about crop circles that have mysteriously appeared on nearby farms.

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The visit was a powerful experience for me—to walk in the paths of people who created such a majestic structure. The Serpent Mound is more than a monument, it’s a device for sending souls to the next life, either here or beyond. Its power, I feel, is still active—alive, if one lets themselves be open to its spirit. For me it was more than a visit to some famous “thing,” like the Empire State Building or worlds biggest ball of yarn. It was a pilgrimage.