Is the Exodus a Myth?

Is the Exodus a Myth?


Is the Exodus a myth?

Millions of people believe that the Exodus we know of from Hebrew school or Sunday school and movies really happened in history. They say God led his chosen people, Israel, out of slavery in Egypt with astounding miraculous power to Canaan, where the Israelite swords reclaimed the land God promised them. Of course, many of us no longer believe in miracles or God, or at least not a god that picks favorites among the children of Earth. Stories like this sound like the fantasy world of Greek mythology. So is the Exodus a myth too? If it is, what were the real origins of the Israelite nation and Judaism? Does the Exodus have any grounding in reality at all? What does this mean for biblical religions today?

To answer these questions we first have to isolate what exactly we are talking about. What is our source for the Exodus story? Cecil B. DeMille and Ridley Scott didn’t invent it. The Exodus story comes to us from the sacred writings that make up the Old Testament, in particular the books of Exodus through Deuteronomy. The individual books that make up the Old Testament reached their final form sometime after the return of Jews from Babylon and before the Roman occupation of the land of Israel. Our earliest complete copies are found in the Dead Sea Scrolls dated to around the first centuries BC /AD. The particular books that make up the Old Testament weren’t agreed upon on until several generations after beginning of Christianity!

Outside of those dedicated to defending religious dogmas, the spectacular Exodus story found in the Bible is considered by archeologists and historians to be impossible. A lot of them have suggested that there is a kernel of truth to the Exodus, but what that kernel might be is a matter of considerable debate. While most believe that there may be some historical reality behind the legend, many maintain it is only a myth and even the believers concede that we can’t know what happened, and the question no longer grabs the attention it once did with scholars.



From the film, The Ten Commandments


I am of the opinion that there is a likely historical event in behind the Exodus. I’m documenting my own theory for the date of the Exodus, and what that event was, in my current research. By way as an introduction, I want to explain some of the background to my research.

First, one of the most important keys to understanding the historical record of the Exodus is the understanding that the story is composed of various separate sources. Each tells its own story, and the composite story is ahistorical because it only comes into being with the combination of the sources. Those sources were written at different times and places by people with a diversity of views.

While Christians order the Bible from Genesis to the Minor Prophets and Jews from Genesis to the Writings, the actual chronology of the times when the books and their sources were written is different. The earliest parts of the Bible’s stories that were composed are a number of poems dated by most scholars to around the 12th-11th centuries.

The bible itself cites two works, the wars of Jehovah and the Book of the Righteous, which are now lost to us in their entirety, but seemed to have contained ancient songs celebrating God and Israel.

The next sources are called by scholars J and E, and they make up large chunks of the books from Exodus to Numbers. The dates of these two are hard to determine, but I think J can be confidently dated to between approximately 850-800 B.C. E is harder to date and may be later or earlier. It was probably combined with J shortly after the fall of Israel.

Following them is likely some of the Minor Prophets, Amos, Hosea, and Isaiah. These books are supposedly records of the lives and prophecies of prophets, written down by disciples either during their lives or shortly afterward. The books, as we have them, were sometimes composed decades later and contain a lot of later material attributed to the old prophets, but there is a certain amount of material believed to date back to the prophets themselves, who were active between approximately 800 and 700 B.C.

The other sources, D and P, are later still. D was certainly written during the reign of Josiah, while P may be from anywhere between the time of king Hezekiah of Judah to the period under the Persians after the Jews were freed from Babylon. D is the book of Deuteronomy while P makes up most of the Bible from Genesis to Numbers that isn’t J or E.

Other biblical books were written even later, but I won’t dwell on these since they are composed too late to have a real historical perspective or are derived from the combinations of these earlier sources.

When you separate the various strands of sources, arrange them in time and read them separately you find the story changes, things that we associate with the Exodus are not found in all versions, nor are some elements and themes found in the earliest sources. Perspectives on the Exodus change as writers are influenced by more independent sources and combined text. Its story is shaped by the circumstances of the history when it was written. By examining the separate elements of the Exodus story in regard to its age, biases, reliability and so forth, we can trace the story of the Exodus back through time to its original form and then use that for comparison to the historical and archeological data to answer the question: what was the Exodus? In future posts, I will discuss how the different sources talked about the Exodus at different times.



Bibliography: If you want to look up the books where I get my information from, here you go…

The Harper Collins Study Bible NRSV 2006

Who Wrote the Bible? 1987

The Bible Unearthed 2001

The Oxford History of the Biblical World 1998

The Old Testament: A historical and Literary Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures 2006

Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry 1975

Click here for a brief summation of the theory that the fist five books of the Bible are a combination of different sources, called the Documentary hypothesis.

The Apocalypse of Prince

The Apocalypse of Prince

With Prince passing away, I decided to listen to his albums before work and his song Seven came up. I’ve linked to the Video. I thought it was interesting in that Prince, raised a Jehovah Witness would have been familiar with the apocalyptic literature of the Bible and Seven is potpourri of apocalyptic ideas and phrases in a love song. I wonder how the way Prince uses apocalyptic language compares with the ancient writers of apocalyptic literature. Sure theirs were political statements, not love songs, but it is all poetry.

Pilgrimage to The Great Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound

I had the opportunity this past weekend to visit the world heritage site: The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio. Given how famous the mound is within my readings, I’m surprised that I haven’t gone sooner. Along the way, I stopped at a couple of locations from my Mysterious Ohio wall map, which included a visit with a fascinating curator of fossils and stones.


Serpent Mound is the worlds largest snake effigy and is at least 1000 years old—perhaps even older. It was surrounded by burial mounds, though the snake structure itself contains/contained no artifacts. It is a mound of turf about three feet tall and over 100 feet long. Its full shape can only be appreciated from the air.


At ground level, the coils of the serpent rise at both ends following the contours of the land. From the middle the serpent appears to be a series of terraces on the left and right. Its tail is a tight spiral that can be appreciated from ground level while the head forms an oval depression.


The Head or Egg


The Coil Tail

It is thought that burnt offerings were offered in the middle of the head. The serpent’s head points to the setting point of the Sun on the summer solstice. A line between the tip of the tail and head points directly north and the coils line up with several other solar and lunar events during the year. The tip of the tail provides a good platform for viewing the various equinox and solstice events, especial the winter solstice. The head is located on a promontory and the rest of the serpent follows a cliff along the path of a couple of intersecting creeks.

The head, which many interpret to be a snake swallowing an egg, may symbolize a world serpent swallowing the dying sun (the common mythological interpretation of the shortening of days after the summer solstice). While the tail might have been imagined to be the place it was reborn during winter solstice. Like the sun, the spirits of the dead may have been imagined to be swallowed and born again.


Two trees suggest a gateway along the modern path around the Serpent.

Travelers to Serpent Mound might also be interested in visiting a rather old cemetery, Locust Grove Cemetery, located along the road to the site. Another stop along the way is the historic Wickham Inn, which looks to be a private residence, and is rumored to be haunted.


The “Haunted” Wickham Inn

My trip ended at a very interesting shop. Before the turn-off road that leads to the Serpent Mound site, there is a fossil and mineral shop called House of Phacops.


A phacop is a trilobite, an arthropod that has been extinct for hundreds of millions of years.


The shop has a great collection of trilobits and offers fossils and minerals for sale—many are local. The shop appears to be a destination for New Agers as well, and some space within is dedicated to mystical speculation on the Serpent Mound, alongside news articles about crop circles that have mysteriously appeared on nearby farms.


The visit was a powerful experience for me—to walk in the paths of people who created such a majestic structure. The Serpent Mound is more than a monument, it’s a device for sending souls to the next life, either here or beyond. Its power, I feel, is still active—alive, if one lets themselves be open to its spirit. For me it was more than a visit to some famous “thing,” like the Empire State Building or worlds biggest ball of yarn. It was a pilgrimage.

First Things First in the Bible (Part 1): Deborah, Miriam, and Genesis



Part 1

For this post I’d like to talk about the beginning of the Bible, both chronologically and sequentially. Sequentially the Bible starts with chapter one of the book of Genesis, but chronologically the earliest texts written are the poems called the Song of Deborah,” and The Song of Miriam.”

In reading the Bible sequentially, from cover to cover, one is introduced to a history of the Biblical world starting with creation and leading to the Roman occupation. However, reading the bible chronologically shows a very different development of the ideas and myths of the Bible. A new perspective is acquired from understanding the relationship in regard to time that the various books of the Bible have with each other.

Genesis chapter one is a cosmology, a genealogy of the universe. It comes from a source called P by biblical scholars. The first five books of the Bible, called the Pentateuch, are a formed by harmonizing several parallel versions of Israel’s beginnings, much in the same way some have tried to make a single account of the Gospels of the New Testament. For example, when you see a pageant play or movie about Jesus, often you are seeing a harmonization of the Bible’s four Gospels.

Over the century a lot of work has been done identifying and analyzing these sources, though many doubts remain in both academic and non-academic circles. However, I’m convinced that the hypothesis of multiple sources, called the Documentary Hypothesis, is the correct hypothesis. Of course, until a edition of one of the original sources is found, it remains unprovable.

According to most proponents of the Documentary Hypothesis, P, named for the priestly caste who are thought to have been responsible for creating P, is one of the latest of the sources. Most scholars argue in favor of a time after Babylon conquered Judah, with notable exceptions arguing in favor of an earlier time.

Genesis 1 is later than the following chapter, which traditionally was viewed as a more detailed account of the creation of humanity and its early history. But in reality, the second chapter of Genesis is an older account independent of chapter one, reflecting a different theology and cosmology.

Both are steeped in the myths of their Semitic neighbors, but the writers of Genesis 1, who intended their origin tale to replace, not supplement Genesis chapter 2, have far different perspective on the nature of the god they worship, and how he is worshiped. The priests who wrote P were very much interested in focusing all aspects of the worship of their god, Yahweh or Jehovah, translated LORD in many English translations of the Bible, on them and their temple cult.

In the source for Genesis 2, called J , in reference to Judah, the kingdom in which it’s to believed to have been composed, God (Yahweh) frequently sends angels and talking animals to communicate with humans. That is not so in P. Why? It is believed that this is because the priests wanted to establish that God only communicates through them and their institutions.

The writers of P also call the god of creation Elohim, a word meaning god/gods, or Yahweh-Elohim, translated frequently as LORD God. The second chapter simply uses Yahweh. This is thought to be because the writers of J thought Yahweh had always been the name of Israel’s god, while the priests knew of another tradition from outside Judah—that the Israelites used to worship God under the name of Elohim. This distinction was one of the first clues that the first five books of the Bible, the Pentateuch (from the Greek “five books”), was composed of multiple source texts.

The earliest parts of the Bible, those first composed, are thought by most scholars to be a collection of poems embedded in the Pentateuch and the later work, Judges (and thus from a still earlier source). This is based on comparisons of the language and style of the poems with those elsewhere in biblical text and those known archeologically from the Ancient Middle East.

The writers of the Pentatuach some times refer to sources called  the Scrolls of the Upright and the Scrolls of the Wars of Yahweh. These are thought to be collections of ancient poems telling the tales of heroes and the history of the tribes of Israel. The earliest are believed to be the “The Song of Deborah” found in the book of  Judges and the “Song of Miriam” found in the book of Exodus—thought to be the same as the more complete “Song of Moses.”

The reason for calling this work the song of Miriam is the assumption that it’s more likely that a work attributed to a minor figure of the Exodus would be claimed by a more prominent figure than vice versa. These poems are at least 400 years earlier than Genesis 1 and are of a wholly different nature. They are not cosmologies, but victory songs. They extol a god named Yahweh who aids the warrior’s of Israel by way of his behind the scenes control of nature and spirits. The early Israelites that composed them were preliterate, and the songs were passed from generation to generation providing an oral history of Israel and communicating the nature of the Israelite god Yahweh. The historical beginning of biblical religion is found in these battle hymns, composed and performed by women of semi-nomadic tribes and clans.

The opening line of the Song of Miriam, “I will sing to the Lord, for he is highly exalted. Both horse and driver He has hurled into the sea!” is the one of the earliest documentation of a historical event in the Bible. Ancient Middle Eastern victory hymns celebrated contemporary events. This is thus the earliest account of the famous parting of the Red Sea tradition.

Read independently of the other accounts in the Book of Exodus, it doesn’t have a lot of information on what occurred here. Only that some chariots sank into the “Red Sea” a location of considerable debate. Never-the-less, the event—however it occurs, is not only one of the first biblical events recorded, but also forms the “genesis” of the Israelite people.

When looking for that which is most fundamental to the story found in the Pentatuach, one comes to this victory over Egypt, imagined to be miraculous by the poetess’ of early Israel.

In part two I will discuss how it is that Genesis 1 starts the Bible now, and what significance that might have.

For further reading, I recommend the following books:

Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry

Who Wrote The Bible?

Current thoughts on the  Documentary Hypothesis by Dr. Richard Friedman